In-depth blog about former slave and boxing legend Bill Richmond (1763-1829); subject of Luke G. Williams' biography, published by Amberley in August 2015.

Tuesday, 15 November 2016

Bill Richmond on Black and British: a forgotten history

Click here to buy my book Richmond Unchained, the ONLY full length biography of Bill Richmond ever written

On Wednesday 16 November, the great boxer Bill Richmond (1763-1829) featured in episode 2 of the BBC2 documentary programme Black and British: A Forgotten History, presented and written by historian David Olusoga.

My biography of Bill, Richmond Unchained, which was published in 2015, remains the only full length biography ever written of this vitally important figure from sporting and social history. To see Bill's life 'recognised' in a major television series is, for me, the fulfilment of a longstanding dream.

You can read more about the series and my involvement in it by clicking here

At the heart of this series is a wonderful project, by which plaques commemorating important figures from black history were erected at locations across the country.

Bill's plaque (pictured above) was unveiled at the Tom Cribb pub in London (it will be permanently installed once the pub undergoes a refurbishment in the new year). Below are a selection of images from the plaque ceremony which took place on Tuesday 13 September, as well as an edited version of the speech I gave at the unveiling.

So read on if you want to discover more about Bill Richmond! If you are then inspired to find out even more about Bill please explore this blog - which contains a wealth of Richmond-related material - or consider buying a copy of my book.
Luke G. Williams, Wednesday 15 November 2016

Actor Hugh Quarshie, a great admirer of Bill Richmond, with author Luke G. Williams
Hugh Quarshie with David Olusoga, the presenter and writer of Black and British: a forgotten history

Artist Godfried Donkor, who has produced several works featuring Bill Richmond, with Luke G. Williams

Luke G. Williams with pioneering boxing promoter and manager Ambrose Mendy
Cruiserweight boxer Richard Riakporhe with Luke G. Williams
Boxers Richard Riakporhe and Richie Rambo Mansende read an extract about Bill Richmond from Pierce Egan's Boxiana
Boxers Richard Riakporhe and Richie Rambo Mansende unveil the Bill Richmond plaque
The life and career of pioneering pugilist Bill Richmond has been honoured by the unveiling of a BBC History plaque at the Tom Cribb pub in London. Luke G. Williams puts Richmond's life in context, explaining the significance of his career and the plaque's location.

Most people have never heard of Bill Richmond, yet before Muhammad Ali, before Jesse Owens and before Jack Johnson,  Richmond was the first sports star of African heritage.

Bill was born a slave in Staten Island, America in 1763. As a teenager he won his freedom thanks to the intervention of an English soldier named Hugh Percy who brought the youngster to England.

Once in England, Percy acted as Richmond’s mentor. He ensured Bill was educated and then apprenticed to a cabinetmaker in York. Bill married a local white woman named Mary, had several children and lived a respectable life as a trained craftsman and family man.

This was an unusual but far from unique existence for a black man in Georgian England.

However, when Richmond was in his 40s something changed ... and instead of continuing with a life of quiet respectability, he decided to enter the world of professional boxing.

Now you must expel all thoughts from your mind of modern boxing when contemplating what the sport was like in Bill Richmond’s day.

For starters, all boxing matches were conducted with bare knuckles. And secondly there were no points decisions or judges. Fights continued until one of the combatants could no longer stand or continue, and sometimes lasted hour upon hour.

In short, bareknuckle boxing was a brutal and unforgiving sport.

Why then might a family man such as Bill Richmond risk injury or even death to enter the prize ring?

The answer, I believe, was what Indiana Jones once called 'fortune and glory'.

In the early 1800s boxing was the biggest and most popular sport in England, and the leading boxers the nation’s most feted and favoured sons.

The ground on which the Tom Cribb pub stands, just off Leicester Square, was the centre of the boxing universe in Georgian England. The early 19th century equivalent of Las Vegas, if you will. A couple of hundred yards to the south, down St Martin’s Street, was the Fives Court, the country’s leading boxing arena, where fighters publicly sparred in front of packed houses and the deal-makers arranged fights. Lords, nobles, MPs, fighters and the working man would all mingle here - united by their shared love of boxing.

Before Richmond entered the prize ring, no other black boxer had succeeded in overcoming the prejudice of the crowd and the public to carve out a successful sporting career, but Richmond was a man with an eye for the theatrical and possessed the steely determination needed to secure social advancement. Through the sheer force of his personality, his charisma and physical excellence he thus became the first black sportsman to achieve national fame and significance.

And he did so without ever succumbing to popular stereotypes – in short, he was a fighter but he was no thug, indeed he viewed boxing as an art, once declaring: “A gentleman, sir, only uses his hands to defend himself, and not to attack; we call the pugilistic art, for that reason, the noble science of defence.”

Despite his advanced age when he first fought in the London prize ring in 1804, Richmond enjoyed a remarkable boxing career. Indeed, he was still fighting and winning significant fights in his mid-50s, and in total he won 17 contests, losing just twice.

In the process of his career, this former black slave became one of the most famous celebrities in England and was also viewed as one of the most skilled boxing trainers in the land. The likes of Lord Byron and William Hazlitt were among those who sought boxing tuition at Richmond’s training rooms.

Unfortunately, Richmond was never quite physically large enough or young enough to win the Boxing Championship of England, but he did play a significant role in two boxing matches between Englishman Tom Cribb and another former slave Tom Molineaux for the English Championship in 1810 and 1811.

For these fights the formidable Molineaux was mentored, nurtured and trained by Richmond.
Richmond had lost to Cribb several years earlier and thought he had found, in Molineaux, a fellow black man young and strong enough to win the English Boxing Championship. The prospect of this ‘black challenge’ to presumed white English supremacy caused a sensation in Georgian England and the two Cribb-Molineaux contests, which Richmond co-promoted, were the biggest and most significant sporting occasions of their day. One writer even commented that the outcome of these fights was more important to England’s future than what happened in the country’s ongoing war with Napoleon.

After his association with Molineaux, Richmond remained a highly respected elder statesman of boxing. He was among the group of pugilists invited to the coronation of George IV in 1821 to act as an usher - a remarkable honour for a man who began life in the colonies as a slave.

In the years before his eventual death in 1829, Richmond and his former arch rival Tom Cribb buried their rivalry and became great friends. Every Sunday the two men would dine together at the Union Arms pub, of which Cribb was the landlord, and it was here, on 27 December 1829, that Richmond spent the last evening of his life, before dying aged 69.

Richmond’s death was marked by the appearance in dozens of newspapers of admiring obituaries and articles about him.

Given that he spent the last night of his life on the premises of what is now the Tom Cribb pub, it is highly appropriate that London’s leading pugilistic public house is now the permanent residence for a splendid memorial to Richmond’s remarkable life, a memorial which has been made possible by David Olusoga's new BBC series A Black History of Britain, which will air on BBC2 this November.

Nearly 200 years since his death, Richmond is, at last, gaining the widespread recognition his remarkable life and career have long deserved.

The above text is an edited version of a speech given by Luke G. Williams at the unveiling event on Tuesday 13 September 2016. For more information on Bill Richmond, check out Luke's book, Richmond Unchained.


Sunday, 13 November 2016

Bill Richmond to feature this week in BBC series Black and British: a forgotten history

Click here to buy my book Richmond Unchained, the ONLY full length biography of Bill Richmond ever written

Bill Richmond, pugilistic legend and pioneer of black sport, is to feature in episode 2 of David Olusoga's major new BBC documentary series Black and British: a forgotten history, which will be broadcast this week, on Wednesday 16 November at 9pm on BBC2.

During the making of the series I was delighted to be consulted by the team behind the series, answering many questions and queries that they had about Bill Richmond and his amazing life. I was then doubly delighted when I learned that Richmond was one of the historic figures from black history selected to have a plaque unveiled in his honour during the production of the programme.

It was decided that the Tom Cribb pub, where Richmond spent the last night of his life with his rival turned friend Cribb, would be the perfect location for this plaque. The supportive folk at Shepherd Name brewery agreed, as they had done for the Bill Richmond portrait unveiling within the pub which took place at the book launch for Richmond Unchained last year.

I suggested the wording for the plaque which read:
"BILL RICHMOND: Freed Slave, Boxer, Entrepreneur Spent the last evening of his life here with his friend Tom Cribb 27 Dec 1829."

Filming of this ceremony took place on Tuesday 13 September and I was honoured to be asked to make a speech before the plaque was unveiled by upcoming professional cruiserweight boxer Richard Riakporhe and amateur welterweight prospect Richie Rambo Mansende, an event which was reported on by The Voice newspaper as well as by Boxing Monthly magazine.

Footage from this ceremony features in the season trailer for the Black and British season  and a shot from outside the Tom Cribb also appeared briefly in episode one. Episode 2 - entitled 'Freedom' - will feature the Richmond event, and details of his life in more detail.

The series is described by the BBC thus: "Historian David Olusoga explores the enduring relationship between Britain and people whose origins lie in Africa."

Meanwhile, the episode 2 synopsis on BBC iplayer is as follows: "In the second part of his four-part series, historian David Olusoga explores the business of slavery and remembers the black sailors who fought for Britain at Trafalgar. He also celebrates a Georgian boxing superstar and the men and women who crossed continents in pursuit of freedom."

To see Bill Richmond featured in a major BBC documentary series is a great thrill and I can't wait to see Wednesday's episode!

A visit to Alnwick

It was a beautiful week in August when I visited Alnwick Castle, ancestral home of the Percy family, to give a talk about my book Richmond Unchained.

Bill Richmond, of course, has a strong link to Alnwick and the Percy family - it was Hugh Percy, later the second Duke of Northumberland, who freed Bill from slavery and brought him to England as a teenager. A true humanitarian, Percy also had Bill educated and apprenticed into the cabinet-making trade.

The Alnwick archives had assisted me with my research for Richmond Unchained and when a portrait of Bill Richmond was installed at the Tom Cribb pub in August 2015 at the book launch for Richmond Unchained it was highly appropriate that Hugh's descendant, George Percy, performed the official unveiling.

It has  been a longstanding ambition of mine to visit Alnwick Castle and the invitation to do so while also delivering a talk about my book was therefore an offer I couldn't refuse!

The talk took place on the evening of Wednesday 3 August in the restaurant area of the castle. There were around 20 or so people in attendance, including some who had travelled from Gateshead and Newcastle due to their interest in Bill Richmond, which was very flattering.

My talk focused on the links between Richmond and the Percy family, including references to the material in the Alnwick archives which refers to Bill Richmond.

The audience were attentive throughout and in the Q and A session afterwards asked several interesting questions. I was also delighted to learn from one member of the audience about the fascinating connection and friendship between Percy and the native American Iroquois leader Thayandanegea (also known as Joseph Brant).

Many members of the audience bought copies of Richmond Unchained after the talk and, although he could not attend the event, the current and 12th Duke of Northumberland Ralph Percy, even bought a copy which will be bound and placed in the family library at Alnwick.

My two days in Alnwick were made complete when the team at the castle arranged for myself, my wife and daughter to visit the breathtaking castle, grounds and gardens the day after my talk. All in all, it was a wonderful couple of days and I must thank all the staff at Alnwick, particularly visitor activity manager James Boyd, for making my visit such a memorable one.

Testimonial about my talk:
"Luke's lecture on Bill Richmond complimented a very well written and incredibly detailed book. The depth of the research carried out by Luke is so great that he was able to tailor the talk and focus on the early stages of Bill Richmond's remarkable life, and the engagements with Hugh Percy, the 2nd Duke of Northumberland. Not only did the talk follow the journey of Richmond, but also Luke's personal journey of research. How Luke has managed to find such fascinating information about a gentleman that existed over 200 years ago is a triumph, and I’m sure will be enjoyed by many that read the book or hear Luke talk." James Boyd, visitor activity manager, Alnwick Castle

Thursday, 16 June 2016

Richmond Unchained talk at Alnwick Castle

I will be giving a talk about my book Richmond Unchained at Alnwick Castle on Wednesday 3 August 2016. There is a close connection between Alnwick, the history of the Percy family and the life story of Bill Richmond which my talk will be focusing on.

If you are interested in attending please click on this link where you can access more information and buy tickets.

Thursday, 9 June 2016

British Sports Book Awards reflections, images and videos

I've been meaning to blog for a few days now about the Cross British Sports Book Awards, which took place last week, on Wednesday 1 June.

Richmond Unchained was shortlisted for the Biography of the Year award, and although it didn't win, the whole process of being nominated and attending the awards was very special.

To gain recognition for one's efforts and hard work with an award nomination is very gratifying indeed, and the chance to rub shoulders with journalistic and sporting legends, from Nigel Mansell to Michael Lynagh, from Donald McRae to Brian Glanville was the experience of a lifetime.

Before heading to the awards, I made sure that I drank a toast to Bill Richmond by finally cracking open a bottle of his favourite drink - noyaux - which I had been saving for a special occasion. I then slipped into my tuxedo, complete with a pocket square utilising Bill Richmond's ring colours, and my wife and I walked the short distance from our hotel to Lord's cricket ground, where the awards were taking place in the Nursery pavilion.

While enjoying a champagne reception I, and many other nominees, were interviewed by the awards organisers. You can watch a video compilation of these interviews below, in which I even pop up for a few seconds.

We then took our seats for a splendid dinner. Before we knew it the ceremony had begun and the nominees for Biography of the Year had been announced, and a video of the judges discussing the merits of the shortlisted titles had been played. You can watch these videos below.

One of the judges, Annie Vernon, then took to the stage and announced that the winner was Andy Bull's Speed Kings. Disappointment then, for myself and Richmond Unchained, although I cannot stress enough that Mr Bull's book is an excellent work and a truly worthy winner. I was particularly pleased to see that the winning book was one with a historic dimension to it, and featured - in bob-sledding - a sport seldom written about. You can watch an interview with Andy Bull about his book below.

With the nerve-wracking part of the ceremony out of the way, we were able to sit back and enjoy the rest of the meal and the ceremony. And very enjoyable it was too!

All in all, then, a very memorable evening. Huge thanks to my publishers Amberley for supporting my nomination, and for the organisers and sponsors of the Sports Book Awards, particularly Danielle and Alastair at Agile Marketing.

Thanks also to my friends and family for their support and encouragement in supporting Richmond Unchained, as it grew from an idea, to a manuscript and then, finally, into an award-nominated book! Particularly heartfelt thanks to my wife Kemi, my mum and sister, my friend and Richmond Unchained illustrator Trevor Von Eeden and my friends Richard and Sara Evans.

You can check out more about the Cross Sports Book Awards on their website here and on their video channel here.

Monday, 30 May 2016

Raise a glass to Bill Richmond: in search of noyaux

One of the qualities I have always admired about boxer Bill Richmond was his abstemious nature.

Unlike many of his pugilistic contemporaries, who fell victim to the charms of the bottle and died young, Richmond maintained a sense of self-control throughout his life, despite the rampant drinking culture which surrounded prize-fighting and despite the fact he spent several years as landlord of the Horse and Dolphin public house in St Martin's Street.

This is not to say, however, that Richmond was teetotal. The Morning Post newspaper, in its obituary of 'the Black Terror' in 1830, noted that he was "remarkably abstemious in the use of liquor, seldom taking more than a glass of sherry and water". Meanwhile, Pierce Egan, in Boxiana, noted that Richmond could be "rather facetious over a glass of noyeau, his favourite wet with a SWELL".

While researching Richmond Unchained, this quote of Egan's piqued my curiosity. Having never heard of 'noyeau' I decided to try and find out what it was and, if possible, get my hands on a bottle, so I could taste what Richmond's favourite drink was like.

I soon discovered that 'noyeau' was, in fact, an Egan spelling error, and that 'Crème de Noyaux' - to give it its correct appellation - was a once popular but now largely forgotten 19th century French liqueur, pink in colour, and made from the kernels of apricot, peach or cherry stones or - according to some sources - a combination of all three.

However, try as I might, I couldn't find anywhere in the UK that stocked noyaux, not even the legendary spirits store Gerry's in Soho, who told me they had been searching for it for "12 years, to no avail". I could find several vendors abroad who sold a liqueur named 'Noyau de Poissy', but none of them would import to the UK.

It was only when I came across a website for an American company named Tempus Fugit that I began to make some real progress.Tempus Fugit described themselves thus:

"Our goal is to source and recreate rare spirits and liqueurs from the pages of history to satisfy the demands of the most discerning connoisseur."

One such liqueur that they have 'recreated' was Crème de Noyaux, the process for which they described as follows:

"Tempus Fugit Spirits’ Crème de Noyaux is based on the historic 19th century French liqueur, traditionally made with apricot stone (pit) kernels, bitter almonds and other botanicals. Many years of research were required to finalize the production techniques for this rare and complex spirit, utilizing the natural ingredients specified in the original recipes. Tempus Fugit Spirits Crème de Noyaux represents the classic Crème de Noyaux. Prized by the most distinguished bartenders during the Golden Age of cocktails. Perfect in numerous classic cocktails, Crème de Noyaux is used as a primary ingredient or in dashes."

Eventually, I found a company in Germany named Alandia that were willing to export a bottle of Tempus Fugit's Crème de Noyaux to the UK and, after a wait of a few weeks, a bottle of Bill Richmond's favourite drink duly arrived at my house.

And what does it taste like? Well, I don't know because, like Bill Richmond, I'm pretty abstemious these days, and I'm saving it for a special occasion.

Perhaps I'll have a swig this Wednesday night before heading to the British Sports Book Awards, where Richmond Unchained has been shortlisted for Biography of the Year!

Noyaux ingredients, from's information sheet about Noyaux

Sunday, 29 May 2016

Bill Richmond cartoon from the 1930s

Although I finished writing Richmond Unchained a while ago, I still habitually trawl the internet and other archival sources for any 'Richmond-abilia'.

Here's something interesting I found today on the Heritage Auctions website - a cartoon of Bill Richmond from the Baltimore American newspaper circa the 1930s by artist Tom Doerer. The 'likeness' of Richmond in the centre of the montage is clearly based on the Boxiana portrait, but Doerer has made his version of Richmond far too Rhett Butler / Jason King-esque for my liking! Not quite sure where the moustache came from ... Anyway, an interesting find nonetheless! Incidentally, Doerer was once an artist on the boxing comic Joe Palooka, a character who features extensively in my essay on boxing comic books for the anthology I edited, Boxiana.

Thursday, 28 April 2016

Richmond Unchained nominated for Biography of the Year at British Sports Book Awards

I am delighted to announce that my book Richmond Unchained has been nominated in the Biography of the Year category at the 2016 Cross British Sports Book Awards.

This is a real honour, and I hope it means that more people will be get to learn about the amazing life story of Bill Richmond. The awards take place on 1 June at Lords Cricket Ground and highlights from the ceremony will be shown the following weekend on Sky Sports.

I'd like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who has supported me throughout the writing and publication of Richmond Unchained, particularly my family and friends, and my publishers Amberley

Tuesday, 26 April 2016

"Definitely a book with 'bottom'" - Boxing Monthly on Richmond Unchained

I am pleased to announce that my book Richmond Unchained is reviewed in the new May issue of the highly-respected Boxing Monthly magazine, which is available now via App store and other digital outlets, and in the shops from Thursday.

The review is on page 52 of the magazine and is by the magazine's long-established reviewer John Exshaw. In the interests of full disclosure I think it is important to mention I had an article about Bill Richmond published by BM last year and have also contributed articles to their website.

However I do not know Mr Exshaw and I have never met or communicated with him. Therefore, I do not believe that my contributions to BM will have influenced his review in any way, shape or form - indeed, I think it is fair to say that Mr Exshaw has  a reputation within the boxing community for integrity, independence and - at times - brutal honesty. Certainly, having read his reviews for many years, I have realised that he is a very hard man to please and never defers to reputation. I can also recall at least one occasion on which he has written a very negative review about a book that had also bought advertising space in BM magazine - which I think reinforces my point that he is a truly independent and impartial voice.

Bearing this in mind, I have to say that I am delighted - and no little relieved - that Mr Exshaw's review of Richmond Unchained is a very positive one! A selection of quotes from the review are included below, and if you want to read the review in full then I urge you to get a copy of the magazine!

"Mr. Williams proves both diligent and tenacious in researching the details of Richmond's life ... as well as judicious in his assessment of the most likely course of events in the many instances in which there is conflicting evidence ... The merits, then, of Mr. Williams' book are many and manifold (including the splendid illustrations by Trevor Von Eeden), and it can be heartily recommended to pugilist-specialist readers and novices alike. ... This is definitely a book with "bottom"."

Addendum: Mr Exshaw mentions in his review that Richmond Unchained would benefit from an index and in this opinion, I agree wholeheartedly with him. Due to page constraints, which came about as a result of extra research and information about Bill Richmond that I discovered relatively late in the writing process, I had to make the difficult decision to shorten my sources / referencing section and not have an index. This decision was made to ensure my main text did not have to be edited down and so that Trevor Von Eeden's wonderful illustrations could be included. In an ideal world, I wish there had been an index. Please note though, that fuller details about my sources can be found on this blog and I intend, in time, to also publish a full index to Richmond Unchained on this blog.

Saturday, 9 April 2016

Bill Richmond?

Bill Richmond (?) and I at the Getty Center, Los Angeles
On a recent visit to Los Angeles I was able to visit the Getty Center and see up close a sculpture that my friend and fellow Bill Richmond fanatic Jerry Leibowitz is convinced is Bill.

Jerry's fascinating theory is that the sculpture, credited by the Getty Museum and the Yale Center for British Art, as being the work of Francis Harwood in 1758, is actually a much later sculpture of ... yes! Bill Richmond!

Jerry's thesis is very convincing and very interesting ... check out his fascinating posts on the subject below:
Bust of a Man
Bust of a Man ... Alternate version
Bust of a Man, the Sequel - Bill Richmond Strikes Back

Meanwhile, this post contains Jerry's work on the historical background / context to his later work:
Follow the Money

And while I'm recommending further reading for you Richmondophiles out there, you should also check out another  post of Jerry's: the first chapter of a novel he's writing about Bill Richmond. Well worth reading and a real appetiser for the full length novel to follow!

Bill Richmond (?) in all his glory
The Getty's attribution - which is disputed by Jerry Leibowitz

(Some of this post involves repetition of a previous post from January 2015, but the pix are all new!)

Tom Belcher grave discovered

Tom Belcher's portrait from Boxiana
 A new and notable resident of the famous burial ground Nunhead Cemetery in south London has been discovered thanks to research conducted by boxing historians Alex Joanides and John Warren.

On a visit to the cemetery on 3 April, Alex and John were able to discover the long lost grave of Tom Belcher (1783-1854) - one of the most famous boxers from the ‘golden age’ of English bare-knuckle pugilism at the beginning of the 19th century. Tom Belcher was, for many years, a close friend of Bill Richmond, subject of my 2015 book Richmond Unchained.
It has long been assumed and reported in boxing history books that Belcher died and was buried in his native Bristol. However recent research has revealed that he lived out the last years of his life as a resident of number 19 Trafalgar Square, Peckham, prior to his death and burial in Nunhead. Trafalgar Square was a well-to-do residential area just off modern-day Commercial Way, in an area then known as ‘Peckham New Town’.
“Tom Belcher is one of the most important fighters and players in the history of boxing and it is an absolute privilege and honour to rediscover his grave,” Alex Joanides said. “Many thanks must also go to The Friends of Nunhead Cemetery for their assistance in allowing us to access their archives and cemetery layout plans and plot and grave numbers.
“The inscription of the gravestone is only legible in certain places with other parts of the stone decayed completely away. However, we were able to clearly make out the names of at least three more members of the Belcher family buried in the plot.”
Tom Belcher's grave - photo by Alex Joanides
Born in 1783, Tom Belcher was the brother of the great Jem, arguably the greatest boxer of the ‘Golden Age’ period. Although Tom never became champion of England, like Jem, he was nevertheless considered one of the most skilful boxers in the land. The legendary boxing writer of the time, Pierce Egan, wrote of him that: “in point of elegance of attitude and scientific precision … TOM BELCHER, as a pugilist, stands unrivalled”.
During the first 30 years of the 19th century, boxing was the most popular sport in England and its leading exponents among the most famous men in the country. A measure of the fame and esteem in which Belcher - and the sport of boxing as a whole - were held is demonstrated by the fact that he was one of the 18 famous pugilists who were enlisted by King George IV to act as ushers at the new monarch’s coronation in 1821. Before retiring to “country life” in the late 1820s, Belcher was also the landlord of the famed Castle Tavern pub in Holborn for 14 years.
Belcher’s position as a major figure from English social and sporting history has been acknowledged through his inclusion as a character in the acclaimed 2015 novel Death and Mr Pickwick by Stephen Jarvis, which examines the connections between The Pickwick Papers and various facets of cultural, sporting and literary history.
Belcher is not the only famous boxer buried in Nunhead cemetery – the grave of the former champion of England turned painter and musician James ‘Jem’ Ward (1800-1884) can also be found in the grounds.
Tom Belcher obituary from an 1855 newspaper